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Computer Keyboard Shortcuts

100+ Computer Keyboard Shortcuts

keyboard shortcuts

This computer keyboard shortcut list will come in handy for both end users and network administrators alike. This is worth printing and keeping near your keyboard.

 Let’s be realistic here. Nobody is going to memorize all of these keyboard shortcuts.

What I suggest doing is printing this list then read each shortcut and highlight the ones that make your job a little easier.

Keyboard Shortcuts (Microsoft Windows)
1. CTRL+C (Copy)
2. CTRL+X (Cut)
… 3. CTRL+V (Paste)
4. CTRL+Z (Undo)
5. DELETE (Delete)
6. SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
7. CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
8. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
11. CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
12. CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
13. CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
14. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
15. CTRL+A (Select all)
16. F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
17. ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
18. ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
19. ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
20. ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
21. CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents opensimultaneously)
22. ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
23. ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
24. F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
25. F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
26. SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
27. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
28. CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
29. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
30. F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
31. RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
32. LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
33. F5 key (Update the active window)
34. BACKSPACE (View the folder onelevel up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
35. ESC (Cancel the current task)
36. SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROMinto the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)

Dialog Box – Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
2. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
3. TAB (Move forward through the options)
4. SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
5. ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
6. ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
7. SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
8. Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
9. F1 key (Display Help)
10. F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
11. BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
2. Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
3. Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
4. Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
5. Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
6. Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
7. Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
8. CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
9. Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
10. Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
11. Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
12. Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
13. Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
14. Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
15. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
16. Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
17. SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
18. NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
19. Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
20. Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
21. END (Display the bottom of the active window)
22. HOME (Display the top of the active window)
23. NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
24. NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
25. NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
26. LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
27. RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)

Shortcut Keys for Character Map
After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
1. RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
2. LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
3. UP ARROW (Move up one row)
4. DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
5. PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
6. PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
7. HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
8. END (Move to the end of the line)
9. CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
10. CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
11. SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)

Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
2. CTRL+N (Open a new console)
3. CTRL+S (Save the open console)
4. CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
5. CTRL+W (Open a new window)
6. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
7. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
8. ALT+F4 (Close the console)
9. ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
10. ALT+V (Display the View menu)
11. ALT+F (Display the File menu)
12. ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)

MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
2. ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
3. SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
4. F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
5. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
6. CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
7. CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
8. ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for theselected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)

Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
1. CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
2. ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
3. ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
4. ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
5. ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
6. CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
7. ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
8. CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
9. CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place asnapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboardand provide the same functionality aspressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

Microsoft Internet Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
2. CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
3. CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
4. CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
5. CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
6. CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
7. CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
8. CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box,the same as CTRL+L)
9. CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
10. CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
11. CTRL+W (Close the current window)

Posted in How To's, Microsoft, What is?0 Comments

The Use of Amplifiers in Fiber Optics

Most experienced network administrators, network engineers and cable technicians have a solid understanding of how fiber optics are used to transmit data / information.  While working with fiber hands on is a niche area reserved for those that specialize in cabling such as professional cable contractors and select employees from cable companies and phone companies. For anyone interested in learning a little more about fiber beyond text book theory this is a good article to better explain some interesting real world fiber optic facts.

Without fiber optic amplifiers, a signal on a network can only travel a limited distance. The average distance a signal can travel through a fiber optic cable without amplification is approximately 124 miles. This short range is not suitable for wide area networks, thus amplifiers are necessary in order to allow a network to function properly.

Three Places Amplifiers Are Commonly Used in Fiber Optics

There are three places where fiber optic amplifiers are most commonly used as it concerns fiber optic transmission. Amplifiers are used to boost the power of a signal before transmission over the optical cable even begins. This serves the purpose of extending the distance of the signal before any subsequent transmission is required. Line amplifiers are set up at carefully planned places along a network in order to maintain signal strength. It is these amplifiers that facilitate a signal’s long distance travel, and these amplifiers can keep the signal traveling for hundreds or even thousands of miles. Finally, Preamplifiers are used to raise signal levels upon reaching the input of optical receivers. The purpose of this is to facilitate adequate signal detection.

The Design of Fiber-Optic Amplifiers

Each type of amplifier is designed differently because they each serve different purposes. For instance, power amplifiers are designed to facilitate high gain. Preamplifiers are designed to keep noise to a minimum, and low noise levels are essential for these amplifiers to work properly. Because line amplifiers are required to enable signals to travel long distances over networks, they are constructed to keep noise levels low and allow for high gain.

Other places fiber optic amps are commonly located or used

There are other places on a network where fiber optic amplifiers are set up. A typical place other than the three aforementioned is in a switching node in order to make up for any loss that may occur in the switch fabric.

A Short History on Fiber-Optic Amplifiers

The invention of fiber-optic amplifiers is not a recent one. Most may think that it is, since the hype about fiber-optic networks has only been going on for the past 7 years or so. However, the first amplifiers were created in the year of 1987. These were called Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, and they did not function well enough to impact signal transmission. These amplifiers were not nearly as advanced as they are now.

With the improvement of amplifiers over the years, a signal can travel over networks almost endlessly. These improvements were not made until recently, as researching and improving amplifiers was abandoned for the past couple of decades. Since attention has been given to amplifiers again, fiber-optic communication has improved dramatically and is becoming commonplace around the world.

Jason Kane from Orlando Florida writes about internet technology and fiber-optics from distributors like FluxLight.

Posted in Cable Company, Fiber amplifier, Fiber Optic Cable, Fiber Optics, Network Cable, Networking, Orlando Cable Contractor, What is?0 Comments

Memory limits for the different versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 Operating System

How much memory can you use with Microsoft Windows 7 ?

First without getting into a bunch of technical detail here is a straight to the point breakdown of how much memory is supported with the different flavors / versions of Microsoft 7.

Microsoft offers it’s Windows 7 operating system in six different versions.

First you need to know that the maximum RAM – memory limit for 32-bit Windows 7 operating system editions is 4GB.
Which is more then enough for the average user.

For power users, special application computers, etc 4 GB of memory may not be enough.

The 64 bit editions of Microsoft Windows 7 support the following amounts of memory.

Microsoft starter Edition: 8GB
Microsoft Home Basic Edition: 8GB
Microsoft Home Premium: 16GB
Microsoft Professional : 192GB
Microsoft Enterprise: 192GB
Microsoft Ultimate: 192GB

These memory limits are similar to those with Microsoft Vista flavors / editions.

Which version is right for you?
We will get to that in another article….:)

Posted in Computers, Memory, Microsoft, Operating Systems, Questions & Answers, Software, What is?0 Comments

The hidden dangers of Image GeoTagging

What is Image Geo tagging anyways?

Did you know today’s smart phones and digital cameras embed hidden data into the photographs you take. The photos you take can tell others:

  • Where you live
  • Where you work
  • Where you go to school
  • Where you spend your free time
  • When there is nobody home
  • Where you park your car

Now it may not be a big deal if you are taking photographs of yourself or a loved one in a public place like Lake Eola, Cranes Roost Park or another well known public place. On the other hand if you are taking photos in your home, at your job or any other place you don’t want a stranger to know then you probably should continue reading this article.

How does it happen?
When you take a photograph with a smartphone or digital camera, it takes much more then just a photograph. Most of today’s smart phones such as the DROID or the IPHONE have the ability and do so  by default add Geo Tags to the photographs you take which include information about the EXACT location where the photograph was taken, what date and time the photograph was taken and this poses a real security threat to consumers.

Lets pretend you take photos of yourself with your Iphone, DROID or other modern smartphone.
Now lets pretend you upload those photos to your facebook, myspace, a singles website or even email them to somebody you don’t know very well.

Sounds pretty normal so far, right?

The hidden danger is anybody with the know-how or technical knowledge if you will can view the hidden data embedded in your photographs and see exactly where the photos were taken, when the photos were taken and much more…

How do you protect yourself?

You can turn off the GPS feature on your smart-phone, but you might still need the GPS feature turned on for GPS navigation. So if you want to protect yourself you would turn the GPS functionality off on your smart phone when you are taking photographs and turn the GPS function back on if you happen to need to use the GPS features in your smartphone.

Written by Chris Ondo




Posted in GeoTagging, Security, Smart Phones, What is?0 Comments

The Definition of RAID and the Most Common RAID Levels Explained

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive (or Independent) Disks.

I prefer to call them Redundant Array of Independent disks because they use to be very expensive.

A RAID array is a set of multiple hard drives that make up a data storage system built for redundancy or business continuity. In most but not all configurations a RAID storage system can tolerate the failure of a hard drive without losing data however this ultimately depends on how the RAID array is configured.

Different RAID Levels and Their Common Uses

Each RAID level have pro’s and con’s and it is up to a network administrator to decide which RAID level is best for a specific situation. There are many factors to be taken into consideration and it boils down to Speed – performance and budget.

Here are some examples of some of some common RAID configurations or RAID levels.

RAID Level 0

RAID Level 0 provides no redundancy whatsoever and is completely foolish to use in a business environment for storing critical data. With a RAID 0 configuration if one hard drive dies the entire RAID array dies and you can kiss all of data on the RAID array goodbye when this happens. RAID 0 is usually popular with computer video gamers that only take performance into consideration and RAID 0 is usually twice as fast as other RAID levels. Re read this paragraph before considering using RAID 0 it to store your precious data. RAID Level 0 splits or stripes the data across drives, resulting in higher data throughput. Since no redundant information is stored, performance is very good, but the failure of any disk in the array results in total and complete data loss. Raid Level 0 is only used to increase hard drive performance.  A RAID 0 configuration uses 2 hard drives and you get the storage capacity of both of the hard drives. Example if you have 2 100 gig hard drives then you get 200 gigs of NON redundant storage space.

RAID Level 1

RAID Level 1 is usually referred to as hard drive mirroring AKA a mirror. A Level 1 RAID array provides redundancy by duplicating all the data from one drive on a second drive so that if one of the two hard drives drive fails, no data is lost. RAID 1 is very good for small businesses because it is affordable and reliable. A RAID 1 configuration uses 2 hard drives so if you have 2 identical hard drives you get the storage capacity of 1 of those hard drives. Example if you have a pair of 100 gig hard drives then you get 100 gigs of redundant storage space.

RAID Level 5

RAID Level 5 stripes data at a block level across several drives and distributes parity among the drives. No single disk is devoted to parity. This can speed small writes in multiprocessing systems. Because parity data is distributed on each drive, read performance tends to be lower than other RAID types.

The actual amount of available storage is about 70% to 80% of the total storage in the disk array. The storage penalty for redundancy is only about 20% to 30% of the total storage in the RAID 5 array. If one disk fails it is possible to rebuild the complete data set so that no data is lost. If more than one drive fails all the stored data will be lost. This gives a fairly low cost per megabyte while still retaining redundancy.
A RAID 5 configuration uses 3 or more hard drives. If you have for the sake of an example, 3 100 gig hard drives then you get approximately 200 gigs of actual storage capacity.

RAID 1+10

Raid 1+10 is commonly known as RAID 10 and is a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1 – mirroring. What this means is you have 4 hard drives, 2 sets of the hard drives are each on a RAID 0 configuration and are then mirrored together on a RAID 1 configuration. Data is striped across the data mirror which provides both high performance and redundancy together. Any one of the hard drives can fail without data loss as long as the data mirror is not damaged. The RAID 10 array offers both high speed data transfer (write speed) advantages of striped arrays and increased data accessibility (read speed). System performance during a RAID rebuild drive is also better than that of parity based arrays, since data does not need to be regenerated from parity information, but is copied from the mirrored hard drive to another.

Now that you know what RAID is and what common RAID levels are used today never ever assume a RAID system is a backup solution because it is not. An Orlando computer consultant can help you decide which RAID level is best for your business or organization. Don’t ever just blindly purchase a server without the guidance of a professional network administrator. Without professional guidance you may go overboard and waste money on a RAID system that you don’t really need or you may wind up getting a RAID system that offers no data protection at all.

Posted in Computers, Data Storage, Hard Drives, Hardware, RAID Levels, What is?0 Comments

What is a Microsoft Small Business Server? and do you need one for your organization?

What is a Microsoft Small Business Server?

What is the difference between a Small Business Server and a single role server?

Here is a simple non technical explanation of what a Microsoft Small Business Server is and is not.

After reading this article you will have a better understanding so lets get started.

Larger companies such as fortune 500 or fortune 100 companies have many servers that do different things.
Examples are:

  • Multiple Domain controllers / file servers
  • Multiple SQL / database servers
  • Multiple Exchange servers
  • Multiple web servers
  • Multiple DHCP servers
  • and so forth…

Let’s pretend that “some big company” has 40 servers and each server has its own role to do something specific for the computer network. In theory this would mean that this company has 40 separate physical servers setup in a room to control the computers for this company. In today’s world this would be consolidated using server virtualization but that is getting off topic so I’m not going to get into that in this article.

Now let’s pretend you are a small business owner and you need a file server + a SQL database server + an exchange server. Ok so this means you would need 3 physical servers + 3 different server operating system licenses and many of other things and this can get expensive quickly not to mention an experienced network administrator to design, configure, deploy, test and manage this for you.

Now with a Microsoft Small Business Server Operating System you get 1 physical server that has multiple server roles built into 1 nice neat package. So you can have that file server and that database server and an exchange server and that web server all combined into 1 neat little package. This can save the small business owner money IF the server is properly configured and maintained.

Microsoft states the SBS – small business server will support up to 75 computer users / workstation computers. In theory this will work but in the real world if you have 75 computers connected to a SBS server you can expect very poor performance.

From my experience I will say that Microsoft SBS servers are pretty cool IF they are properly configured with the right hardware and software. I have seen many small businesses have an SBS server that were NEVER configured correctly or are just being used as a simple file server. In such a case the SBS server isn’t necessary and is a waste of money for the business owner.

So without getting into technical details this concludes what a Microsoft Small Business Server does.

If you are thinking about purchasing a new server for your business get to know an Orlando computer consultant and find out if a Microsoft Small Business Server will benefit your organization.

Posted in Computers, Data Storage, Microsoft, Operating Systems, Servers, What is?0 Comments

What is Internet Marketing or Search Engine Optimization – SEO?

Internet Marketing is the process of improving the volume and or quality of visits to your website.

Let’s face it no matter how fancy or good you think your website is if your website is not making your phone ring or isn’t reaching your target audience then your website is almost useless. This is the same principle as having a physical sign for your business but instead of proudly displaying it where your target audience can easily see it you have it hidden in your garage covered in junk. What good is it?
Who cares how nice your sign is nobody can find it.

Millions and millions of people use Google each and every day to look for something whether it is information, services, a product or YOUR BUSINESS but if your website is not visible then your potential customer or client goes elsewhere for his or her needs.  Thousands and even tens of thousands of people use Google right here in Orlando Florida everyday to search for a business, service providers, information and all kinds of other things and guess what? If your website does not show up for a local search you are losing money and potential customers & clients are going to your competitor instead of you because your potential customer or clients don’t know you even exist.

Quality SEO or search engine optimization does not happen overnight and is a time consuming and tedious technical process. Internet marketing in itself is a complex science that requires special skills, knowledge and most importantly real world experience if you demand quality results. If you are a small or medium sized company and you want to achieve professional results then it is best to hire a SEO – search engine optimization expert to perform the work or guide you and provide you with quality support. You can attempt to do it yourself but if you don’t know what you are doing then it’s best to hire a professional SEO – Search Engine Optimization consultant or small firm.

Choosing a high quality SEO expert can be a nightmare in itself with all the scams and con artists everywhere. So stay tuned while we write an article on how to choose the right SEO expert for your needs and how to avoid getting ripped off which is a HUGE problem in itself and why it is best to stay away from the BIG SEO companies at all costs and we will explain why in our next SEO article.

Posted in Google, Internet Marketing, SEO, What is?0 Comments

What is web hosting?

What is web hosting?
Web hosting is the technical act of housing, managing and hosting websites on special servers referred to as web servers or clouds. Managing a web server requires special skills, expensive equipment and a 24-7 connection to a commercial high speed internet connection.

There are thousands of web hosting companies all over the world and some of the better companies use high end servers, high quality networking equipment, backup their servers & your data and employ professional and experienced computer engineers – network administrators that know what they are doing and most importantly are reliable and responsive to your needs or problems. There are also the CheapO web hosting providers that use cheap computers instead of real servers to host websites, don’t backup their servers or your data, and use cheap unreliable networking equipment and unreliable internet connections. Now don’t expect them to tell you that because most of them want you to think they are the best and of course they want your business. You can get super cheap web hosting all day long but expect nothing less than headaches and incompetent support usually outsourced to India or other countries.

Do I need web hosting?
If you own or want a website then the answer is yes you need web hosting.

What kind of web hosting do I need?
This depends on several factors such the size of your website? How much traffic does your website get? Is your website database driven? These are a few of the important questions you need to know when choosing the right web hosting for your specific needs. An Orlando Webmaster can help you decide what specific web hosting is right for you and prevent you from wasting your time and money making mistakes.

What is disk space?
In the web hosting industry or Information Technology industry disk space – aka hard drive storage capacity is the physical space that a website occupies on a server or web server web – CLOUD.

What is Bandwidth?
Bandwidth is the measurement of data transfer speed through a computer network.
If you remember the dial up internet connection days you would refer to that slow connection as slow bandwidth. If you use a high speed internet connection you would refer to that as high speed bandwidth. Bandwidth is most common measured in Gigabytes. An example is one normal sized email which may be one or a few bytes in size. A typical image or photo may be a few kilobytes or larger and videos and other multimedia files can exceed megabytes in size. The data that is transferred to and from your website or computer is also referred to as bandwidth.

Posted in Web Hosting, What is?0 Comments